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PEP: 3101
Title: Advanced String Formatting
Version: ca2f801ef18f
Last-Modified:  2015-12-27 10:09:06 -0700 (Sun, 27 Dec 2015)
Author: Talin <viridia at>
Status: Final
Type: Standards Track
Content-Type: text/plain
Created: 16-Apr-2006
Python-Version: 3.0
Post-History: 28-Apr-2006, 6-May-2006, 10-Jun-2007, 14-Aug-2007, 14-Sep-2008


    This PEP proposes a new system for built-in string formatting
    operations, intended as a replacement for the existing '%' string
    formatting operator.


    Python currently provides two methods of string interpolation:

    - The '%' operator for strings. [1]

    - The string.Template module. [2]

    The primary scope of this PEP concerns proposals for built-in
    string formatting operations (in other words, methods of the
    built-in string type).

    The '%' operator is primarily limited by the fact that it is a
    binary operator, and therefore can take at most two arguments.
    One of those arguments is already dedicated to the format string,
    leaving all other variables to be squeezed into the remaining
    argument.  The current practice is to use either a dictionary or a
    tuple as the second argument, but as many people have commented
    [3], this lacks flexibility.  The "all or nothing" approach
    (meaning that one must choose between only positional arguments,
    or only named arguments) is felt to be overly constraining.

    While there is some overlap between this proposal and
    string.Template, it is felt that each serves a distinct need,
    and that one does not obviate the other.  This proposal is for
    a mechanism which, like '%', is efficient for small strings
    which are only used once, so, for example, compilation of a
    string into a template is not contemplated in this proposal,
    although the proposal does take care to define format strings
    and the API in such a way that an efficient template package
    could reuse the syntax and even some of the underlying
    formatting code.


    The specification will consist of the following parts:

    - Specification of a new formatting method to be added to the
      built-in string class.

    - Specification of functions and flag values to be added to
      the string module, so that the underlying formatting engine
      can be used with additional options.

    - Specification of a new syntax for format strings.

    - Specification of a new set of special methods to control the
      formatting and conversion of objects.

    - Specification of an API for user-defined formatting classes.

    - Specification of how formatting errors are handled.

    Note on string encodings: When discussing this PEP in the context
    of Python 3.0, it is assumed that all strings are unicode strings,
    and that the use of the word 'string' in the context of this
    document will generally refer to a Python 3.0 string, which is
    the same as Python 2.x unicode object.

    In the context of Python 2.x, the use of the word 'string' in this
    document refers to an object which may either be a regular string
    or a unicode object.  All of the function call interfaces
    described in this PEP can be used for both strings and unicode
    objects, and in all cases there is sufficient information
    to be able to properly deduce the output string type (in
    other words, there is no need for two separate APIs).
    In all cases, the type of the format string dominates - that
    is, the result of the conversion will always result in an object
    that contains the same representation of characters as the
    input format string.

String Methods

    The built-in string class (and also the unicode class in 2.6) will
    gain a new method, 'format', which takes an arbitrary number of
    positional and keyword arguments:

        "The story of {0}, {1}, and {c}".format(a, b, c=d)

    Within a format string, each positional argument is identified
    with a number, starting from zero, so in the above example, 'a' is
    argument 0 and 'b' is argument 1.  Each keyword argument is
    identified by its keyword name, so in the above example, 'c' is
    used to refer to the third argument.
    There is also a global built-in function, 'format' which formats
    a single value:
       print(format(10.0, "7.3g"))
    This function is described in a later section.

Format Strings

    Format strings consist of intermingled character data and markup.

    Character data is data which is transferred unchanged from the
    format string to the output string; markup is not transferred from
    the format string directly to the output, but instead is used to
    define 'replacement fields' that describe to the format engine
    what should be placed in the output string in place of the markup.

    Brace characters ('curly braces') are used to indicate a
    replacement field within the string:

        "My name is {0}".format('Fred')

    The result of this is the string:

        "My name is Fred"

    Braces can be escaped by doubling:

        "My name is {0} :-{{}}".format('Fred')

    Which would produce:

        "My name is Fred :-{}"

    The element within the braces is called a 'field'.  Fields consist
    of a 'field name', which can either be simple or compound, and an
    optional 'format specifier'.

Simple and Compound Field Names

    Simple field names are either names or numbers.  If numbers, they
    must be valid base-10 integers; if names, they must be valid
    Python identifiers.  A number is used to identify a positional
    argument, while a name is used to identify a keyword argument.

    A compound field name is a combination of multiple simple field
    names in an expression:

        "My name is {}".format(open('out.txt', 'w'))

    This example shows the use of the 'getattr' or 'dot' operator
    in a field expression.  The dot operator allows an attribute of
    an input value to be specified as the field value.

    Unlike some other programming languages, you cannot embed arbitrary
    expressions in format strings.  This is by design - the types of
    expressions that you can use is deliberately limited.  Only two operators
    are supported: the '.' (getattr) operator, and the '[]' (getitem)
    operator.  The reason for allowing these operators is that they don't
    normally have side effects in non-pathological code.

    An example of the 'getitem' syntax:

        "My name is {0[name]}".format(dict(name='Fred'))

    It should be noted that the use of 'getitem' within a format string
    is much more limited than its conventional usage.  In the above example,
    the string 'name' really is the literal string 'name', not a variable
    named 'name'.  The rules for parsing an item key are very simple.
    If it starts with a digit, then it is treated as a number, otherwise
    it is used as a string.

    Because keys are not quote-delimited, it is not possible to
    specify arbitrary dictionary keys (e.g., the strings "10" or
    ":-]") from within a format string.

    Implementation note: The implementation of this proposal is
    not required to enforce the rule about a simple or dotted name
    being a valid Python identifier.  Instead, it will rely on the
    getattr function of the underlying object to throw an exception if
    the identifier is not legal.  The str.format() function will have
    a minimalist parser which only attempts to figure out when it is
    "done" with an identifier (by finding a '.' or a ']', or '}',

Format Specifiers

    Each field can also specify an optional set of 'format
    specifiers' which can be used to adjust the format of that field.
    Format specifiers follow the field name, with a colon (':')
    character separating the two:

        "My name is {0:8}".format('Fred')

    The meaning and syntax of the format specifiers depends on the
    type of object that is being formatted, but there is a standard
    set of format specifiers used for any object that does not
    override them.

    Format specifiers can themselves contain replacement fields.
    For example, a field whose field width is itself a parameter
    could be specified via:

        "{0:{1}}".format(a, b)

    These 'internal' replacement fields can only occur in the format
    specifier part of the replacement field.  Internal replacement fields
    cannot themselves have format specifiers.  This implies also that
    replacement fields cannot be nested to arbitrary levels.

    Note that the doubled '}' at the end, which would normally be
    escaped, is not escaped in this case.  The reason is because
    the '{{' and '}}' syntax for escapes is only applied when used
    *outside* of a format field.  Within a format field, the brace
    characters always have their normal meaning.

    The syntax for format specifiers is open-ended, since a class
    can override the standard format specifiers.  In such cases,
    the str.format() method merely passes all of the characters between
    the first colon and the matching brace to the relevant underlying
    formatting method.

Standard Format Specifiers

    If an object does not define its own format specifiers, a standard
    set of format specifiers is used.  These are similar in concept to
    the format specifiers used by the existing '%' operator, however
    there are also a number of differences.

    The general form of a standard format specifier is:


    The brackets ([]) indicate an optional element.

    Then the optional align flag can be one of the following:

        '<' - Forces the field to be left-aligned within the available
              space (This is the default.)
        '>' - Forces the field to be right-aligned within the
              available space.
        '=' - Forces the padding to be placed after the sign (if any)
              but before the digits.  This is used for printing fields
              in the form '+000000120'. This alignment option is only
              valid for numeric types.
        '^' - Forces the field to be centered within the available

    Note that unless a minimum field width is defined, the field
    width will always be the same size as the data to fill it, so
    that the alignment option has no meaning in this case.

    The optional 'fill' character defines the character to be used to
    pad the field to the minimum width.  The fill character, if present,
    must be followed by an alignment flag.

    The 'sign' option is only valid for numeric types, and can be one
    of the following:

        '+'  - indicates that a sign should be used for both
               positive as well as negative numbers
        '-'  - indicates that a sign should be used only for negative
               numbers (this is the default behavior)
        ' '  - indicates that a leading space should be used on
               positive numbers

    If the '#' character is present, integers use the 'alternate form'
    for formatting.  This means that binary, octal, and hexadecimal
    output will be prefixed with '0b', '0o', and '0x', respectively.

    'width' is a decimal integer defining the minimum field width.  If
    not specified, then the field width will be determined by the
    If the width field is preceded by a zero ('0') character, this enables
    zero-padding.  This is equivalent to an alignment type of '=' and a
    fill character of '0'.

    The 'precision' is a decimal number indicating how many digits
    should be displayed after the decimal point in a floating point
    conversion.  For non-numeric types the field indicates the maximum
    field size - in other words, how many characters will be used from
    the field content.  The precision is ignored for integer conversions.

    Finally, the 'type' determines how the data should be presented.
    The available integer presentation types are:

        'b' - Binary. Outputs the number in base 2.
        'c' - Character. Converts the integer to the corresponding
              Unicode character before printing.
        'd' - Decimal Integer. Outputs the number in base 10.
        'o' - Octal format. Outputs the number in base 8.
        'x' - Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using lower-
              case letters for the digits above 9.
        'X' - Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using upper-
              case letters for the digits above 9.
        'n' - Number. This is the same as 'd', except that it uses the
              current locale setting to insert the appropriate
              number separator characters.
        '' (None) - the same as 'd'

    The available floating point presentation types are:

        'e' - Exponent notation. Prints the number in scientific
              notation using the letter 'e' to indicate the exponent.
        'E' - Exponent notation. Same as 'e' except it converts the
              number to uppercase.
        'f' - Fixed point. Displays the number as a fixed-point
        'F' - Fixed point. Same as 'f' except it converts the number
              to uppercase.
        'g' - General format. This prints the number as a fixed-point
              number, unless the number is too large, in which case
              it switches to 'e' exponent notation.
        'G' - General format. Same as 'g' except switches to 'E'
              if the number gets to large.
        'n' - Number. This is the same as 'g', except that it uses the
              current locale setting to insert the appropriate
              number separator characters.
        '%' - Percentage. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays
              in fixed ('f') format, followed by a percent sign.
        '' (None) - similar to 'g', except that it prints at least one
              digit after the decimal point.

    Objects are able to define their own format specifiers to
    replace the standard ones.  An example is the 'datetime' class,
    whose format specifiers might look something like the
    arguments to the strftime() function:

        "Today is: {0:%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y}".format(

    For all built-in types, an empty format specification will produce
    the equivalent of str(value).  It is recommended that objects
    defining their own format specifiers follow this convention as

Explicit Conversion Flag

    The explicit conversion flag is used to transform the format field value
    before it is formatted.  This can be used to override the type-specific
    formatting behavior, and format the value as if it were a more
    generic type.  Currently, two explicit conversion flags are

        !r - convert the value to a string using repr().
        !s - convert the value to a string using str().

    These flags are placed before the format specifier:


    In the preceding example, the string "Hello" will be printed, with quotes,
    in a field of at least 20 characters width.
    A custom Formatter class can define additional conversion flags.
    The built-in formatter will raise a ValueError if an invalid
    conversion flag is specified.

Controlling Formatting on a Per-Type Basis

    Each Python type can control formatting of its instances by defining
    a __format__ method.  The __format__ method is responsible for
    interpreting the format specifier, formatting the value, and
    returning the resulting string.
    The new, global built-in function 'format' simply calls this special
    method, similar to how len() and str() simply call their respective
    special methods:
        def format(value, format_spec):
            return value.__format__(format_spec)
    It is safe to call this function with a value of "None" (because the
    "None" value in Python is an object and can have methods.)

    Several built-in types, including 'str', 'int', 'float', and 'object'
    define __format__ methods.  This means that if you derive from any of
    those types, your class will know how to format itself.
    The object.__format__ method is the simplest: It simply converts the
    object to a string, and then calls format again:
        class object:
            def __format__(self, format_spec):
                return format(str(self), format_spec)
    The __format__ methods for 'int' and 'float' will do numeric formatting
    based on the format specifier.  In some cases, these formatting
    operations may be delegated to other types.  So for example, in the case
    where the 'int' formatter sees a format type of 'f' (meaning 'float')
    it can simply cast the value to a float and call format() again.
    Any class can override the __format__ method to provide custom
    formatting for that type:

        class AST:
            def __format__(self, format_spec):

    Note for Python 2.x: The 'format_spec' argument will be either
    a string object or a unicode object, depending on the type of the
    original format string.  The __format__ method should test the type
    of the specifiers parameter to determine whether to return a string or
    unicode object.  It is the responsibility of the __format__ method
    to return an object of the proper type.
    Note that the 'explicit conversion' flag mentioned above is not passed
    to the __format__ method.  Rather, it is expected that the conversion
    specified by the flag will be performed before calling __format__.

User-Defined Formatting

    There will be times when customizing the formatting of fields
    on a per-type basis is not enough.  An example might be a
    spreadsheet application, which displays hash marks '#' when a value
    is too large to fit in the available space.

    For more powerful and flexible formatting, access to the underlying
    format engine can be obtained through the 'Formatter' class that
    lives in the 'string' module.  This class takes additional options
    which are not accessible via the normal str.format method.
    An application can subclass the Formatter class to create its own
    customized formatting behavior.

    The PEP does not attempt to exactly specify all methods and
    properties defined by the Formatter class; instead, those will be
    defined and documented in the initial implementation.  However, this
    PEP will specify the general requirements for the Formatter class,
    which are listed below.

    Although string.format() does not directly use the Formatter class
    to do formatting, both use the same underlying implementation.  The
    reason that string.format() does not use the Formatter class directly
    is because "string" is a built-in type, which means that all of its
    methods must be implemented in C, whereas Formatter is a Python
    class.  Formatter provides an extensible wrapper around the same
    C functions as are used by string.format().

Formatter Methods

    The Formatter class takes no initialization arguments:
        fmt = Formatter()

    The public API methods of class Formatter are as follows:

        -- format(format_string, *args, **kwargs)
        -- vformat(format_string, args, kwargs)
    'format' is the primary API method.  It takes a format template,
    and an arbitrary set of positional and keyword arguments.
    'format' is just a wrapper that calls 'vformat'.

    'vformat' is the function that does the actual work of formatting.  It
    is exposed as a separate function for cases where you want to pass in
    a predefined dictionary of arguments, rather than unpacking and
    repacking the dictionary as individual arguments using the '*args' and
    '**kwds' syntax.  'vformat' does the work of breaking up the format
    template string into character data and replacement fields.  It calls
    the 'get_positional' and 'get_index' methods as appropriate (described

    Formatter defines the following overridable methods:
        -- get_value(key, args, kwargs)
        -- check_unused_args(used_args, args, kwargs)
        -- format_field(value, format_spec)

    'get_value' is used to retrieve a given field value.  The 'key' argument
    will be either an integer or a string.  If it is an integer, it represents
    the index of the positional argument in 'args'; If it is a string, then
    it represents a named argument in 'kwargs'.
    The 'args' parameter is set to the list of positional arguments to
    'vformat', and the 'kwargs' parameter is set to the dictionary of
    positional arguments.
    For compound field names, these functions are only called for the
    first component of the field name; subsequent components are handled
    through normal attribute and indexing operations.
    So for example, the field expression '' would cause 'get_value'
    to be called with a 'key' argument of 0.  The 'name' attribute will be
    looked up after 'get_value' returns by calling the built-in 'getattr'

    If the index or keyword refers to an item that does not exist, then an
    IndexError/KeyError should be raised.
    'check_unused_args' is used to implement checking for unused arguments
    if desired.  The arguments to this function is the set of all argument
    keys that were actually referred to in the format string (integers for
    positional arguments, and strings for named arguments), and a reference
    to the args and kwargs that was passed to vformat.  The set of unused
    args can be calculated from these parameters.  'check_unused_args'
    is assumed to throw an exception if the check fails.
    'format_field' simply calls the global 'format' built-in.  The method
    is provided so that subclasses can override it.

    To get a better understanding of how these functions relate to each
    other, here is pseudocode that explains the general operation of
        def vformat(format_string, args, kwargs):
          # Output buffer and set of used args
          buffer = StringIO.StringIO()
          used_args = set()
          # Tokens are either format fields or literal strings
          for token in self.parse(format_string):
            if is_format_field(token):
              # Split the token into field value and format spec
              field_spec, _, format_spec = token.partition(":")
              # Check for explicit type conversion
              explicit, _, field_spec  = field_spec.rpartition("!")
              # 'first_part' is the part before the first '.' or '['
              # Assume that 'get_first_part' returns either an int or
              # a string, depending on the syntax.
              first_part = get_first_part(field_spec)
              value = self.get_value(first_part, args, kwargs)
              # Record the fact that we used this arg
              # Handle [subfield] or .subfield. Assume that 'components'
              # returns an iterator of the various subfields, not including
              # the first part.
              for comp in components(field_spec):
                value = resolve_subfield(value, comp)

              # Handle explicit type conversion
              if explicit == 'r':
                value = repr(value)
              elif explicit == 's':
                value = str(value)

              # Call the global 'format' function and write out the converted
              # value.
              buffer.write(self.format_field(value, format_spec))
          self.check_unused_args(used_args, args, kwargs)
          return buffer.getvalue()
    Note that the actual algorithm of the Formatter class (which will be
    implemented in C) may not be the one presented here.  (It's likely
    that the actual implementation won't be a 'class' at all - rather,
    vformat may just call a C function which accepts the other overridable
    methods as arguments.)  The primary purpose of this code example is to
    illustrate the order in which overridable methods are called.

Customizing Formatters

    This section describes some typical ways that Formatter objects
    can be customized.

    To support alternative format-string syntax, the 'vformat' method
    can be overridden to alter the way format strings are parsed.

    One common desire is to support a 'default' namespace, so that
    you don't need to pass in keyword arguments to the format()
    method, but can instead use values in a pre-existing namespace.
    This can easily be done by overriding get_value() as follows:

       class NamespaceFormatter(Formatter):
          def __init__(self, namespace={}):
              self.namespace = namespace

          def get_value(self, key, args, kwds):
              if isinstance(key, str):
                      # Check explicitly passed arguments first
                      return kwds[key]
                  except KeyError:
                      return self.namespace[key]
                  Formatter.get_value(key, args, kwds)

    One can use this to easily create a formatting function that allows
    access to global variables, for example:

        fmt = NamespaceFormatter(globals())

        greeting = "hello"
        print(fmt.format("{greeting}, world!"))

    A similar technique can be done with the locals() dictionary to
    gain access to the locals dictionary.

    It would also be possible to create a 'smart' namespace formatter
    that could automatically access both locals and globals through
    snooping of the calling stack.  Due to the need for compatibility
    with the different versions of Python, such a capability will not
    be included in the standard library, however it is anticipated
    that someone will create and publish a recipe for doing this.

    Another type of customization is to change the way that built-in
    types are formatted by overriding the 'format_field' method.  (For
    non-built-in types, you can simply define a __format__ special
    method on that type.)  So for example, you could override the
    formatting of numbers to output scientific notation when needed.

Error handling

    There are two classes of exceptions which can occur during formatting:
    exceptions generated by the formatter code itself, and exceptions
    generated by user code (such as a field object's 'getattr' function).

    In general, exceptions generated by the formatter code itself are
    of the "ValueError" variety -- there is an error in the actual "value"
    of the format string.  (This is not always true; for example, the
    string.format() function might be passed a non-string as its first
    parameter, which would result in a TypeError.)

    The text associated with these internally generated ValueError
    exceptions will indicate the location of the exception inside
    the format string, as well as the nature of the exception.

    For exceptions generated by user code, a trace record and
    dummy frame will be added to the traceback stack to help
    in determining the location in the string where the exception
    occurred.  The inserted traceback will indicate that the
    error occurred at:

        File "<format_string>;", line XX, in column_YY

    where XX and YY represent the line and character position
    information in the string, respectively.

Alternate Syntax

    Naturally, one of the most contentious issues is the syntax of the
    format strings, and in particular the markup conventions used to
    indicate fields.

    Rather than attempting to exhaustively list all of the various
    proposals, I will cover the ones that are most widely used

    - Shell variable syntax: $name and $(name) (or in some variants,
      ${name}).  This is probably the oldest convention out there, and
      is used by Perl and many others.  When used without the braces,
      the length of the variable is determined by lexically scanning
      until an invalid character is found.

      This scheme is generally used in cases where interpolation is
      implicit - that is, in environments where any string can contain
      interpolation variables, and no special substitution function
      need be invoked.  In such cases, it is important to prevent the
      interpolation behavior from occurring accidentally, so the '$'
      (which is otherwise a relatively uncommonly-used character) is
      used to signal when the behavior should occur.

      It is the author's opinion, however, that in cases where the
      formatting is explicitly invoked, that less care needs to be
      taken to prevent accidental interpolation, in which case a
      lighter and less unwieldy syntax can be used.

    - printf and its cousins ('%'), including variations that add a
      field index, so that fields can be interpolated out of order.

    - Other bracket-only variations.  Various MUDs (Multi-User
      Dungeons) such as MUSH have used brackets (e.g. [name]) to do
      string interpolation.  The Microsoft .Net libraries uses braces
      ({}), and a syntax which is very similar to the one in this
      proposal, although the syntax for format specifiers is quite
      different. [4]

    - Backquoting.  This method has the benefit of minimal syntactical
      clutter, however it lacks many of the benefits of a function
      call syntax (such as complex expression arguments, custom
      formatters, etc.).

    - Other variations include Ruby's #{}, PHP's {$name}, and so

    Some specific aspects of the syntax warrant additional comments:

    1) Backslash character for escapes.  The original version of
    this PEP used backslash rather than doubling to escape a bracket.
    This worked because backslashes in Python string literals that
    don't conform to a standard backslash sequence such as '\n'
    are left unmodified.  However, this caused a certain amount
    of confusion, and led to potential situations of multiple
    recursive escapes, i.e. '\\\\{' to place a literal backslash
    in front of a bracket.

    2) The use of the colon character (':') as a separator for
    format specifiers.  This was chosen simply because that's
    what .Net uses.

Alternate Feature Proposals

    Restricting attribute access: An earlier version of the PEP
    restricted the ability to access attributes beginning with a
    leading underscore, for example "{0}._private".  However, this
    is a useful ability to have when debugging, so the feature
    was dropped.
    Some developers suggested that the ability to do 'getattr' and
    'getitem' access should be dropped entirely.  However, this
    is in conflict with the needs of another set of developers who
    strongly lobbied for the ability to pass in a large dict as a
    single argument (without flattening it into individual keyword
    arguments using the **kwargs syntax) and then have the format
    string refer to dict entries individually.
    There has also been suggestions to expand the set of expressions
    that are allowed in a format string.  However, this was seen
    to go against the spirit of TOOWTDI, since the same effect can
    be achieved in most cases by executing the same expression on
    the parameter before it's passed in to the formatting function.
    For cases where the format string is being use to do arbitrary
    formatting in a data-rich environment, it's recommended to use
    a template engine specialized for this purpose, such as
    Genshi [5] or Cheetah [6].
    Many other features were considered and rejected because they
    could easily be achieved by subclassing Formatter instead of
    building the feature into the base implementation.  This includes
    alternate syntax, comments in format strings, and many others.

Security Considerations

    Historically, string formatting has been a common source of
    security holes in web-based applications, particularly if the
    string formatting system allows arbitrary expressions to be
    embedded in format strings.

    The best way to use string formatting in a way that does not
    create potential security holes is to never use format strings
    that come from an untrusted source.
    Barring that, the next best approach is to ensure that string
    formatting has no side effects.  Because of the open nature of
    Python, it is impossible to guarantee that any non-trivial
    operation has this property.  What this PEP does is limit the
    types of expressions in format strings to those in which visible
    side effects are both rare and strongly discouraged by the
    culture of Python developers.  So for example, attribute access
    is allowed because it would be considered pathological to write
    code where the mere access of an attribute has visible side
    effects (whether the code has *invisible* side effects - such
    as creating a cache entry for faster lookup - is irrelevant.)

Sample Implementation

    An implementation of an earlier version of this PEP was created by
    Patrick Maupin and Eric V. Smith, and can be found in the pep3101
    sandbox at:

Backwards Compatibility

    Backwards compatibility can be maintained by leaving the existing
    mechanisms in place.  The new system does not collide with any of
    the method names of the existing string formatting techniques, so
    both systems can co-exist until it comes time to deprecate the
    older system.


    [1] Python Library Reference - String formating operations

    [2] Python Library References - Template strings

    [3] [Python-3000] String formating operations in python 3k

    [4] Composite Formatting - [.Net Framework Developer's Guide]
    [5] Genshi templating engine.

    [5] Cheetah - The Python-Powered Template Engine.


    This document has been placed in the public domain.